View research below focused on practices in the art and science of sign or system design.

100,000 Shoppers Can’t Be Wrong: Signage Communication Evidence from The BrandSpark / Better Homes and Gardens American Shopper Study
Arts & Science of Sign Design
Arts and Science of Sign Design – Executive Summary
Consumer Perceptions in Retail Signage – Executive Summary
Digital Print Trends and Technologies in the Sign and Graphics Industry
Improving Sign Effectiveness with Visual Attention Modeling Software
Night-time Brightness Level Recommendations for On-Premise Electronic Message Centers (EMCs)
Night-time Brightness Level Recommendations for On-Premise Electronic Message Centers (EMCs) – Executive Summary
On-Premise Sign Research Review
Protecting Appearance and Atmospherics – Trade Dress as a Component of Retail Strategy
Retail Signage ROI – Executive Summary
Retail Signage – Practices to Increase Return on Investment
Retail Wayfinding Best Practices – Executive Summary
Retail Wayfinding Best Practices
Typography, Placemaking, and Signs
Typography, Placemaking, and Signs – Executive Summary
Urban Wayfinding Manual – Executive Summary
Urban Wayfinding Planning and Implementation Manual
Improving Sign Effectiveness with 3M's Visual Attention Modeling Software